Activity budgets of foraging gray-headed albatrosses

Activity recorders were attached to 13 Gray-headed Albatrosses (Diomedea chrysostoma) rearing chicks at South Georgia in February 1982. During foraging trips to sea totalling 284 bird-days, an average of 74% of the time was spent flying, and 15% of the day and 50% of the night were spent on the sea. The extensive nocturnal activity on the water strongly supports suggestions that the species feeds mainly at night. Using activity budget data with field data on foraging trip length and flight speeds and patterns, maximum foraging range is estimated to be 500-800 km.

Environmental influences on bacterial diversity of soils on Signy Island, maritime Antarctic

first_imgSoil bacterial diversity at environmentally distinct locations on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands was examined using the denaturing gradient gel profiling approach. A range of chemical variables in soils at each site was determined in order to describe variation between locations. No apparent differences in Shannon Diversity Index (H’) were observed. However, as revealed in an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM), the dominant bacterial communities of all eight studied locations were significantly different. Within this, higher levels of similarity were observed between penguin rookeries, seal wallows and vegetated soils, all of which share varying levels of impact from vertebrate activity, in contrast with more barren soil. In addition, the lowest H’ value was detected from the latter soil which also has the most extreme environmental conditions, and its bacterial community has the greatest genetic distance from the other locations. DGGE analyses indicated that the majority of the excised and sequenced bands were attributable to the Bacteroidetes. Across a range of ten environmental variables, multivariate correlation analysis suggested that a combination of pH, conductivity, copper and lead content potentially contributed explanatory value to the measured soil bacterial diversity.last_img read more

France: FREMM Frigate Passes First Torpedo Launch Test with Flying Colors

first_img View post tag: first View post tag: Frigate View post tag: passes July 2, 2012 View post tag: launch View post tag: Colors View post tag: France View post tag: News by topic View post tag: test View post tag: FREMM France: FREMM Frigate Passes First Torpedo Launch Test with Flying Colorscenter_img View post tag: Naval View post tag: with Back to overview,Home naval-today France: FREMM Frigate Passes First Torpedo Launch Test with Flying Colors View post tag: Navy Industry news Teams from DCNS, the French Navy and defence procurement agency DGA recently completed a new test campaign aboard first-of-class FREMM multimission frigate Aquitaine, the last and most important being the first ever torpedo launch test from a FREMM frigate.After demonstrating FREMM frigate Aquitaine’s compatibility with a 10-tonne Caïman helicopter (the French version of the Eurocopter/EADS NH90) in March, DCNS specialists spent several weeks putting the vessel’s combat system, which includes the torpedo launch control system, through its paces.After validating the torpedo tube configuration and performing dry-run tests, the DCNS team conducted the torpedo launch test the 22nd of June. Using an exercise torpedo equipped with sensors and data loggers instead of a warhead, the launch was performed under otherwise operational conditions. The results validated the torpedo tube configuration’s compliance with the relevant specifications. Shipboard observation by DCNS specialists and the data gathered by the torpedo’s onboard sensors confirmed all key parameters including exit speed, angle of impact with the water, and torpedo behaviour and trajectory.“First-of-class FREMM multimission frigate Aquitaine is designed to face all types of threats,” says Vincent Martinot-Lagarde, FREMM programme manager. “The success of the first torpedo launch test is an important milestone as it confirms the ASW capabilities of the ship and her combat system which was designed, developed and produced by DCNS,” he added. In addition to a leading role in the FREMM design programme, DCNS teams contributed, in cooperation with the DGA, to the design of the MU90 lightweight torpedo, the torpedo launch control system and the launch tubes.FREMM frigate Aquitaine is equipped with four launch tubes and will carry up to 19 MU90 torpedoes. Each torpedo weighs close to 300 kg. The MU90 design offers a top speed of over 55 knots, sophisticated target tracking and state-of-the-art stealth.Thanks to the ASW sensors and weapons carried by her organic Caïman Marine/NH90 helicopter, her payload of MU90 torpedoes and great stealth, FREMM frigate Aquitaine offers ASW (anti-submarine warfare) capabilities that are as innovative as they are fearsome.FREMM, a major programme for DCNS and partnersThe French FREMM programme calls for 12 ships – 11 for the French Navy and one for the Royal Moroccan Navy.FREMM frigates are among the most technologically advanced and competitively priced on the world market. These heavily armed warships are being built under DCNS prime contractorship to carry state-of-the-art weapons and systems including the Herakles multifunction radar, MdCN cruise missiles, Aster anti-air missiles, Exocet MM40 anti-ship missiles and MU90 torpedoes.Thanks to their many innovations, FREMM multimission frigates can respond to all types of threats with unparalleled flexibility and availability. The first export sale, to the Royal Moroccan Navy, demonstrates that they also meet the needs and expectations of international client navies.FREMM technical data• Length overall: 142 m• Beam: 20 m• Displacement (approx.): 6,000 tonnes• Max. speed: 27 knots• Complement: 108 (including helicopter crew)• Accommodation: 145 men and women• Range: 6,000 nm (at 15 knots)[mappress]Naval Today Staff, July 2, 2012; Image: DCNS View post tag: Torpedo View post tag: flying Share this articlelast_img read more

MEET ALEX SCHMITT THE REPUBLICAN PRIMARY CANDIDATE FOR CITY COUNCIL

first_imgMEET ALEX SCHMITT THE REPUBLICAN PRIMARY CANDIDATE FOR CITY COUNCIL FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailShare Alex Schmitt is running for the  Evansville City Council At-Large in the Republican primary. He’s a proud 4thgeneration Evansville native, West-sider, and F.J. Reitz graduate, who loves his hometown. He said, “that he was raised to give back to his community, serve his neighbors, uphold his Christian values, and preserve and respect the history of Evansville.”He currently serves on the EVSC Foundation Board of Directors, Reitz Home Museum Board of Directors, Leadership Evansville Executive Board and Board of Directors, and is the Vice President of the Vanderburgh Humane Society.  Alex also volunteers for Youth Resources of Southwestern Indiana, SMILE on Down Syndrome and Habitat for Humanity, to name only a few.  In 2018, he was recognized by the Evansville Courier & Press–Tri-State Business Journal 20 Under 40 as one of the top 20 young professionals in the area, and received the Leadership Evansville Alumnus of the Year Award.He’s a practicing attorney and owner of a small local law firm. In his campaign literature, he states “that he understands the “importance of local economic growth, and will strive to ensure a better quality of life for the citizens of Evansville by being an advocate for the needs of our community.”  He says “If elected one of his personal goals is to finally fix our traffic and road problem.”center_img Alex says “he wants to make it easier for small and local businesses to not only get off the ground but to succeed and flourish”. He also feels “that we have outdated municipal ordinances that act as a great hindrance on the success of local businesses.”Finally, “he wants us to think of our community as an investment and that investment takes patience, sacrifice, and hard work, and the only way to get more out of your investment is to put something into it”.  “If you want your investment to prosper, you have to put something into it.”FOOTNOTE: Any candidate running in the upcoming City Council primary can send their election profile to the [email protected] to C/O Justin Phillips, Editor and we will publish it at no cost. last_img read more

Northern Foods set to slash its bakery division

first_imgNorthern Foods insisted it will not be “holding a fire sale” after revealing it is to divest many of its bakery businesses over the next 12 months.The supplier said this week it wants to dispose of businesses which currently account for 40% of its sales, including Park Cakes, Fletchers Bakery, its chilled pastry businesses and Smith Flour Mills.Chief executive Pat O’Driscoll told British Baker the disposals will reduce the risk and complexity in Northern Foods’ business. She said: “This is not a fire sale, these are good businesses we are selling. We are still very much in the bakery business, but we are focusing on strong brands or growing own label businesses.”Northern Foods hopes to “work through” the sales over the next 12 months, and raise £200m from them. Around 9,000 of its 20,500 staff are expected to transfer to new owners, and a consultation with unions and employee forums is underway, Driscoll said. The rationalisation will leave Northern Foods with five categories: pizza, biscuits, ready meals, sandwiches and Christmas puddings, through its Matthew Walker brand. Brands will account for half the remaining business.Worksop-based Smiths Flour Mills, which has three sites in the UK, is being sold as it is “non-core”, Driscoll said.Park Cakes, which employs 2,000 staff in Oldham and Bolton, and Sheffield-based foodservice supplier Fletchers Bakery, which makes rolls, muffins and scones under the Kara and Fletcher brands are being divested as they are “somewhat lower margin businesses”. Northern Food’s chilled pastry products businesses now on the market are Pork Farms pies and sausage rolls business, Melton Mowbray pork pies, Hollands Pies and Riverside Bakery. These have significant potential, but require major investment “best executed by another market participant”, Northern Foods said. The company hopes to raise £200m from the sales, to fund its pension liabilities, reduce its debts and invest in remaining businesses.Analyst Andrew Saunders from Numis said: “We were expecting more. If this is about playing your best hand of cards, what is being kept is slightly puzzling, There have been three profit warnings in the last three years on biscuits, and Christmas puddings is not a growing market.”The news, which follows a three month review, was announced as the company posted its preliminary results for the year to April 1 with a 27% slide in pre-tax profits – down to £45.1m. Sales were up from £1.42 bn to £1.44bn, as strong sales in the frozen division offset weaker results in bakery and chilled foods arms.last_img read more

Viewpoint

first_imgHere’s a question which keeps coming up. Our simple, yet perceptive, country baker Tony Phillips raises it in his column. Are craft bakers too focused on baking, at the expense of sales? As he puts it, bakers tend to spend their time on the production side “with their head in the trough and their bottoms in the air”. The selling side, which requires a totally different set of skills from production – merchandising, marketing and so on, is sidelined. It’s a balancing act, but bakers must remember that, if their stores do not look inviting, passers-by may form the impression that the same standards apply to production as to presentation, They assume what is on sale is neither high-quality nor tasty. That, I think, is why a more glossy outfit, which looks bright and welcoming, may have a queue stretching to the door, while the established local bakery shop, where delicious products are made from scratch, can look like an empty set on a TV drama about yesteryear. When I’m out and about, I keep my eyes peeled for bakery shops. They are disappointingly few and far between. And, when I do find them, they tend to be painted in peeling brown gloss paint, with dusty windows, often with scrappy pieces of A4 paper, advertising promotions, blu-tacked on. It sounds mean to be critical of craft bakers, who have fantastic skills and work really hard, but sadly, appearances do count. If, to attract new customers, you spend £5,000 on a shop makeover, your takings may go up £500 a week. In three months’ time, you start to have funds to invest. It may seem a risky strategy to take on debt if sales are poor. But if you’re sure your bakery is in a good location, it is the way forward, particularly with the rise of slick sandwich chains and coffee bars, which sell cakes and biscuits. There is also the question of opening hours. On a Sunday I’m often struck by the fact my local Greggs is open, that Subway is chugging away nicely, Pret A Manger is full, and Caffè Nero is buzzing, yet the neighbourhood’s independent shops are firmly closed. Perhaps, they need to take a lead from the likes of Birds of Derby or Chester-based Chatwins, which sell a skeleton range and employ a skeleton staff in stores that trade on Sundays. On the subject of clever solutions: we welcome entries from forward-thinking craft bakers in our Baking Industry Awards; the deadline for entry is now June 30.last_img read more

moe. Welcomes Aqueous’ Mike Gantzer During Stellar 2-Night Utica Run [Full Show Audios]

first_img[Audio: Brian V.]As for the second night, moe. again held nothing back, opening with a high-octane “Spine Of A Dog” to get things started on the right foot. With many classic, older tunes composing the setlist, a highlight of set one was the frame-closing run through “Silver Sun”, “Puebla”, and “Moth”. As for the second set, the band offered up a truly stellar rendition of “Bearsong” coming out of “Kyle’s Song”. However, the big winner of the evening was the second frame’s ending “Rebubula” sandwich, which housed a 22-minute “Yodelittle”.“Lazarus” (intro) Load remaining images [Audio: Rob Clarke]moe. | Saranac Brewery | Utica, NY | 9/7/2018 | Photo: Matt Shotwell On Friday night, moe. kicked off a two-night stand at Utica, New York’s Saranac Brewery, marking the band’s first performances since The Peach Music Festival in mid-July and only shows before the group reconvenes for a brief West Coast tour in October. Supported by Aqueous on Friday, September 7th, and Moon Hooch and Darryl Rahn on Saturday, September 8th, the shows were high-energy throughout, amping up fans and tiding them over during the multi-month break.With Aqueous opening the show on Friday night, moe. invited out Aqueous guitarist Mike Gantzer to join them during Friday’s second set during a rendition of “Mexico”. The collaboration was not necessarily surprising, given the frequent collaborations between the two bands and their similar backgrounds having come up in the Upstate New York jam scenes. However, all of the night’s second frame has earned buzz, with fan favorite “Buster” opening the set and the band working in graceful teases of the Grateful Dead‘s “Dark Star” during “Captain America” ahead of the fiery set-closing combination of “Four” into “Meat”.Setlist: moe. | Saranac Brewery | Utica, NY | 9/7/2018Set One: Timmy Tucker, Mar-DeMa, Bring It Back Home > Water, Hi & Lo > LL3 > Big WorldSet Two: Buster, Prestige Worldwide, Mexico (with Mike Gantzer), Captain America > Four > MeatEncore: Seat Of My Pants Setlist: moe. | Saranac Brewery | Utica, NY | 9/8/2018Set One: Spine Of A Dog > Plane Crash, Who You Calling Scared?, Lazarus, Silver Sun > Puebla > MothSet Two: New Hope For The New Year >(nh) Kyle’s Song > Bearsong, What Can I Say?, Rebubula > Yodelittle > RebubulaEncore: Don’t Wanna Be, Okayalrightlast_img read more

What you need to know

first_imgWater stationsWater stations are located along the perimeter of Tercentenary Theatre and will be clearly marked.  Their locations are:Widener Library stepsWeld Hall, north porchWeld Hall, northeast entranceThayer Hall, south stepsSever Hall, main entranceCollege Pump, near Hollis HallParking servicesParking at Harvard during Commencement week is extremely limited. Please view updated information regarding Commencement parking.Public transportationThe Harvard Square stop on the MBTA’s Red Line subway is directly across the street from Harvard Yard. The Harvard Commuter Choice Program website describes the various routes to Harvard Square using public transportation. Please note: Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this information. RestroomsRestrooms for the general public are located in the following buildings:Weld HallThayer HallSever HallRestrooms are wheelchair accessible.First aid stationsFirst aid stations on Commencement Day are situated in the following locations:Weld Hall — Room 11Thayer Hall — Room 106Sever Hall — Room 112 Video servicesBroadcast-quality, multiple-camera DVD recordings are available of the Commencement Morning Exercises and the afternoon Annual Meeting of the Harvard Alumni Association held in Tercentenary Theatre. Class Day Exercises (Wednesday afternoon) are also available on DVD. The morning and afternoon Commencement Day recordings include commentary during the processions. Single-camera recordings are made of the diploma ceremonies at all of the Houses and some of the graduate/professional Schools.For purchase of or information about videos, contact Commencement Video at 617.884.6000; for audio only, call the Media Production Center at 617.495.9440.center_img Televised viewingThe Commencement Morning Exercises and the afternoon Annual Meeting of the Harvard Alumni Association are televised live for guests who are unable to attend these campus events.The broadcast times are 9-11:30 a.m. and 1:45-4:30 p.m., and the events can be seen on Comcast Cable (channel 283) in Boston/Brookline and Cambridge/Greater Boston.Webcast viewingThe live webcast may be viewed via computer from the following Harvard websites:www.commencementoffice.harvard.eduwww.commencement.harvard.eduwww.uis.harvard.edulast_img read more

Warner Berthoff, 93

first_imgAt a Meeting of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences on December 4, 2018, the following tribute to the life and service of the late Warner Bement Berthoff was placed upon the permanent records of the Faculty.The Henry B. and Anne M. Cabot Professor of English and American Literature, Emeritus, Warner Berthoff was born in Oberlin, Ohio, the son of Nathaniel and Helen (née Tappan) Berthoff. After graduating from the Hotchkiss School in 1943, he entered Harvard College. He enlisted in the Navy’s officer training program and interrupted his education to attend Midshipman School in New York and serve in Okinawa, Japan, 1945–46. He returned to Harvard, where he received his bachelor’s degree magna cum laude in 1947 and his doctorate (on the GI bill) in 1954, with the dissertation “The Literary Career of Charles Brockden Brown.” He met Ann Rhys Evans in a Harvard-Radcliffe graduate class in 1948; they were married in 1949.From 1951 to 1967 he taught at Bryn Mawr College and became a leading historian of American literature. Literature “draws its prime motives from deep within the common culture,” he argued, “but it never speaks for the totality of that culture.” Two major books established his stature: “The Example of Melville” ([1962] 1972), one of the most astute and influential studies of his narrative art in the first major wave of Melville studies that began after World War II, and “The Ferment of Realism” ([1965] 1981), a pioneer attempt to map the contours of an entire era that became a vade mecum for subsequent generations. Both books are still cited and discussed.In 1967 Berthoff joined the Harvard faculty as Professor of English and taught courses on major American writers from Herman Melville to Henry James. In 1981 he became an Associate of Adams House and kept the affiliation honorarily after his retirement in 1990.During his Harvard years he was a most active scholar, publishing numerous books and essays. In “Hart Crane, a Re-Introduction” (1989), he questioned attempts at finding organic unity: “the final organization and sequence of ‘The Bridge’ are in some considerable measure accidental,” yet one could still judge the poem’s achievement. Although identified as an Americanist, he possessed a broad and catholic grasp of letters and was exceptionally well read in modern European literature. He was not a specialist’s specialist or a generalist’s generalist but a rare, special kind of generalist. He partially borrowed the title of “A Literature without Qualities” (1979), a study of mid- and later twentieth-century American letters, from Robert Musil’s novel. He meant the title as a question, one to be debated and answered. In “Literature and the Continuances of Virtue” (1986) he included an extensive, far-ranging reading of “Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften.”He liked to engage in spirited dialogues. In “The Way We Think Now: Protocols for Deprivation” (1976), a skeptical examination of the then fashionable terminology of deconstruction, he deplored what he perceived as its “devalorization of literature itself.” And his “Skirmishing with Edmund Wilson” (1999) opens with a memorable description of his target: “He was hedgehog prickly in argument, resourcefully stubborn in maintaining contended positions, as fond of a literary-critical shootout as his equally patrician contemporary General George Patton was of military campaigning.”In conducting classes Berthoff rarely lectured formally from a set text but preferred to talk instead from notes. He expected deep seriousness of preparation from students and rewarded depth of engagement over immediate polish. His former students remember with uniform enthusiasm his mentoring. “He was alive to the sound and texture of good writing and gave welcome encouragement to those of us who hoped to become not so much scholars as writers,” one wrote. Another reported that Berthoff’s graduate seminar on Henry James changed his attitude toward a writer whom he had detested as an undergraduate, inspiring him to write a dissertation on James and to become a James scholar. A third found that Warner’s “knowledge was immense, but his brilliance flowed out in an abiding humility, geniality, and grace that made him the most engaging teacher and mentor one could ever imagine. . . . He never let me get away with anything, and one of the maxims he drove into me was that imprecise writing is always the product of imprecise thought.” Another described Berthoff as “a theoretically agnostic enthusiast at heart”: “he read every new essay or book as it came out, accepting some, rejecting others, with no discernible methodological bent.” This former student concludes: “Because Warner Berthoff was my teacher, I am more widely read than I might have been otherwise. . . . I am also aware of how much I still have to learn. . . . I understand that enthusiasm is as important to what we do as professionalism and discipline.”Professor Berthoff held a Fulbright fellowship at the Università degli Studi di Catania, Sicily in 1957–58, and he also lectured or taught at the Universities of Rome, Warsaw, and California–Berkeley and at Columbia University, among other institutions. The recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship and a Woodrow Wilson Center Fellowship, he also served as President of the Melville Society in 1983.A resident of Concord, Massachusetts, from 1967 until his death, he published a lively series of meticulously formulated memoirs in the Sewanee Review, including “Memories of Okinawa” (2013), “Going South: 1947” (2013) and “Teaching Hawthorne in Communist Poland” (2015), portraying himself as a “New Republic liberal” amid tense political situations. For example, after being ordered to draft a letter requesting the removal of Negro troops from Okinawa, he resolved “to avoid as much as possible . . . any situation in which [he] might have to take unpalatable orders from higher-ups who were not to be argued with. As it has turned out, university teaching and academic scholarship . . . answered very nicely that juvenile resolve.”Warner Berthoff died on August 28, 2018, of congestive heart failure. He is survived by his wife of sixty-nine years, Ann Evans Berthoff; two children, Rachel Douglas of Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, and Frederic Berthoff of Concord; a grandchild, Jessica Ann Berthoff of Melbourne, Florida; and two brothers, Jared Berthoff of Ohio and Michael Berthoff of New York.Respectfully submitted,Lawrence BuellJames EngellJohn StaufferWerner Sollors, Chairlast_img read more

Professors react to Pope’s remarks

first_imgPope Francis made headlines worldwide when a lengthy interview with Italian Jesuit journal “La Civiltà Cattolica” published last Thursday suggested his leadership would alter the Catholic Church’s focus on social issues. Notre Dame theology experts said it is clear that Francis’ statements provide a potential perspective change but not a radical upending of Church teaching. Pope Francis’s words on abortion, same-sex marriage and contraception generated controversy. “It is not necessary to talk about these issues all the time,” Pope Francis said in the interview. “The dogmatic and moral teachings of the Church are not all equivalent. The Church’s pastoral ministry cannot be obsessed with the transmission of a disjointed multitude of doctrines to be imposed insistently.” Theology professor Fr. Brian Daley, a member of the Jesuit order like Pope Francis, said he does not find Francis’ ideas revolutionary but rather just a demonstration of different style and points of emphasis. “As [Pope Francis] has said, what he’s saying has been there in the Catechism, it’s been there in the teaching of the Church, but people perhaps haven’t realized it,” Daley said. “Part of it is the way the media picks it up and spins it. But I do think the style of the Pope is distinct, and it’s very much his own. And to a great extent, I think it comes out of his Jesuit spiritual background and the Jesuit way of approaching pastoral issues.” Daley said the Jesuit tradition has been to be at the service of the Church, training the members of the order intellectually “in the highest standards of the day,” but also to be deeply rooted spiritually in prayer, contemplation and the Gospels. “I think the basic instinct of the Jesuits and modern Ignatian spirituality in general is a pastoral one,” Daley said. “It’s a matter of asking what can we do to help people come into contact with Christ and follow him. “And as Francis says, it’s not that the rules that the Church presents us with are false or irrelevant, but the Church is not basically there to announce rules. It’s there to pronounce God’s love to people.” John Cavadini, theology professor and director of the Institute for Church Life at Notre Dame, said he sees Francis’ statements as a continuation of Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI’s reminder to focus on the essentials of Catholicism. “What [Pope Francis] has been saying is very much in keeping with Pope Benedict,” Cavadini said. “I think people see there being this division between them, but remember that Pope Benedict published his first papal encyclical on love, called ‘God Is Love.’ I don’t think you can get more essential than that.” Benedict’s next two encyclicals were on hope and faith, respectively, and Cavadini said Francis’ statement last week highlights the same focus on these essentials in a different way. “Pope Francis has a very distinctive pastoral application of this emphasis on the essentials,” Cavadini said. “What he’s basically saying is that you don’t attract people to the faith and you don’t keep people in the faith by concentrating all the time on things that aren’t part of the essential proclamation. “And so what you end up doing, maybe, is making people forget what the essentials are if you’re always talking about other things and you have what he called a kind of ‘fragmented message.’ I think there is a very fundamental continuity with Pope Benedict’s emphasis on the basics, but I think there is a difference in style and a difference in pastoral application.” Pope Francis said the Church must find a new balance or else its moral edifice would be in danger of “[falling] like a house of cards.” Cavadini said Francis is trying to steer the attention to the most essential parts of Catholicism that make the faith vibrant to believers. “The whole point is to convey the beauty of the whole so the more difficult teachings don’t seem like just isolated invitations to desolations, but part of a larger piece and part of a Church that cares about everybody,” Cavadini said. “If the Church shows itself to be a caring communion, then it’s easier for people because there’s something lifted in their lives all the sudden if someone is willing to help them.” This “pastoral framework” for approaching people could transform the whole communion of the Church without altering any of its moral teachings, he said. Pope Francis’ new approach to these teachings partially stems from his different background compared to that of Pope Benedict. “Pope Benedict was a professor … and he became a bishop not out of a pastoral parish experience as much as from a professorial experience,” Cavadini said. “I don’t like people saying Benedict is bad and Francis is good; I think that’s just very superficial because Pope Benedict was a very loving person, a very smart person, but a professor. “He focused on the essentials but spun it as saying ‘these are our foundations, and that keeps us from succumbing to cultural relativism.’ I think Francis, taking the same emphasis on the essentials, says ‘how do we translate this into a way of pastoring or shepherding?’ I think Francis thinks that it translates into a pastoral care of warmth and presence … carries those essentials of the Gospel with them.” Daley said he sees Pope Francis as “an intellectual but not an academic,” especially taking into account his background in Argentina and his appreciation for world culture. “I think [Francis] operates on a fairly imaginative level,” Daley said. “And Benedict does too, but Benedict is the shyer person; he’s kind of an introvert, I think. And he’s a first-class intellectual theologian … where Francis is much more of an extrovert, a charismatic personality. “I think what he’s doing is a typically Jesuit approach, training himself as well as possible in human culture and human understanding … I think he’s really someone who tries to think in contact with the present time, but the reason for this is always to do the work of God and bring the Gospel to people.” Cavadini said viewing these issues as part of the larger context of the essentials of faith makes it clear that the Church’s mission goes beyond rule-making and finger-pointing. “These are pastoral issues before they’re political issues,” he said. “I think that makes a big difference to people’s lives. With this new approach, you create new possibilities with that warmth and presence and a willingness to bear people’s burdens with them.”last_img read more