News June 9, 2021 Find out more RSF_en News Iran: Press freedom violations recounted in real time January 2020 February 25, 2021 Find out more to go further Follow the news on Iran News Receive email alerts Call for Iranian New Year pardons for Iran’s 21 imprisoned journalists Reporters Without Borders is very concerned about serious human rights violations by the Revolutionary Guards against journalists and netizens held in Iranian prisons. Prosecutors may be about to request the death penalty for two bloggers who have been detained since 2008, Vahid Asghari and Hossein Derakhshan.“The serious charges against Asghari and Derakhshan, which are completely groundless, are punishable by the death penalty under Islamic law,” Reporters Without Borders said. “The international community must intervene and demand explanations from President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who is backed by the Revolutionary Guards, and from the judicial authorities, who are abusing the law.”Organised Crime Surveillance CentreEver since its creation by the Revolutionary Guards in March 2009, the Organised Crime Surveillance Centre has played an active role in tracking down and arresting outspoken netizens. Shortly after its creation, the centre announced the dismantling of a “malevolent” online network in March 2009 and the arrests of several website moderators. Their photos and “confessions” were posted on the centre’s website, Gerdab (www.gerdab.ir), a few days later. They reportedly admitted to links with websites that criticised Islam and the government, and to their intention of “misleading” Iranian youth by publicising porn sites. They also confessed to participating in a plot supported by the Americans and Israelis.On 17 June 2009, two days after President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad’s disputed reelection triggered a wave of street protests, the centre issued a communiqué announcing that it had noted “several cases of websites and personal blogs posting articles inciting disturbances of public order and urging the population to rebel.”“These sites, created with the help of American and Canadian companies, receive the support of media that are protected by the American and British security services such as the BBC, Radio Farda (Free Europe) and Radio Zamaneh,” the statement added, urging website managers to suppress “content that incites the population to riot and spreads threats and rumours.”One of the Revolutionary Guard commanders, Ebrahim Jabari, officially confirmed on 20 May of this year that a “cyber army” had been created to crack down on “destructive” online networks. The “cyber army” has reportedly been responsible for the arrests of hundreds of netizens and attacks on such websites as Twitter and the Radio Zamaneh site.Prison conditions, forced confessionsDetainees have been subjected to long periods of solitary confinement and to torture to obtain confessions that are used in their trials. Asghari, a leading target of the “network dismantling” policy, is one of the victims of such abuses. Aged 24 and an ICT student in India, he was arrested on 11 May 2008 at Tehran airport for possessing several credit cards. He is still awaiting trial more than two years later. He was held in solitary confinement for seven month and was mistreated and tortured to make him confess to organising a pornographic network that blasphemed Islam and criticised the government in order to pervert Iranian youth. And what was Asghari’s crime? Hosting websites, including the sites of government opponents.“I was beaten with a stick for hours and hours while blindfolded and handcuffed,” he wrote in a letter to the president of the 15th chamber of the Revolutionary Court on 17 October 2009. “With a knife against my throat, I was threatened with death and rape. I and my family were insulted. I was forced to make a confession and sign it. They then videoed my confession and broadcast the video with the national television station’s complicity although I was legally presumed to be innocent.”According to article 168 of the constitution, defendants prosecuted on political charges should be given public, jury trials but most of the trials have been held behind closed doors. Their lawyers are often sidelined and denied access to the case files and in some cases defendants were not told they had been tried and condemned. Asghari said in his letter: “I have never seen my lawyer and, even in court, I did not have the right to say hello to him.”Asghari also wrote: “I was alleged to have received money from abroad as a result of Google advertising on the websites I hosted. I was accused of insulting the Shiite Imams and the Prophet because of their content. And I was forced to say that Hossein Derakhshan was an agent of both the Iranian ministry of intelligence and the CIA.”Derakhshan, who has Iranian and Canadian dual nationality, was arrested by Revolutionary Guards on 1 November 2008. He was given a trial without due process and has remained in detention even since awaiting the court’s verdict.A trumped-up charge of “insulting government leaders and Islam’s holy texts” was brought against him although he clearly defended not only the Islamic revolution’s principles but also President Ahmadinejad’s policies in his blog entries. He appears to be a collateral victim of the in-fighting between the Revolutionary Guards and the Iranian intelligence services.Two other bloggers, Kouhyar Goudarzi and Hossien Ronaghi Maleki, are also being held in extremely arduous conditions.“Canada and the rest of the international community must redouble their efforts to get the Iranian authorities to release all of the imprisoned netizens and journalists,” Reporters Without Borders added. Nine netizens and 26 journalists are currently detained in Iran, which is on the Reporters Without Borders list of “Enemies of the Internet.” Help by sharing this information News September 23, 2010 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Two bloggers held by Revolutionary Guards could face death penalty March 18, 2021 Find out more Organisation After Hengameh Shahidi’s pardon, RSF asks Supreme Leader to free all imprisoned journalists IranMiddle East – North Africa IranMiddle East – North Africa
This paper examines the role of atmospheric forcing in modifying the pathways of riverine water on the Laptev Sea shelf, using summer-to-winter hydrographic surveys from 2007-2009. Over the two consecutive winter seasons of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 in the area of the winter coastal polynya, our data clearly link winter surface salinity fields to the previous summer conditions, with substantially different winter salinity patterns preconditioned by summer atmospheric forcing. In the summer of 2007 dominant along-shore westerly winds in the cyclonic regime force the Lena River runoff to flow eastward. In contrast, in the summer of 2008 dominant along-shore easterly winds over the East Siberian Sea and on-shore northerly winds over the Laptev Sea in the anticyclonic regime lock the riverine water in the vicinity of the Lena Delta. Over the coastal polynya area in the southeastern Laptev Sea these patterns precondition a surface salinity difference of 8-16 psu between the winters of 2008 and 2009. Overall, this indicates a residence time of at least half a year for riverine water on the Laptev Sea shelf. Future climate change associated with enhanced summer cyclonicity over the eastern Arctic may turn more riverine water eastward along the eastern Siberian coast, resulting in weaker vertical density stratification over the Laptev Sea shelf with possible impact on the efficiency of vertical mixing and polynya dense water production.
EdIna, a joint venture company between Italian energy company Edison and Croatia’s Ina, has reportedly hired a jack-up drilling rig from drilling and well services contractor Crosco, a subsidiary of Ina.Labin rig; Image source: CroscoAccording to Bassoe Analytics, the Crosco’s Labin jack-up rig was hired for a period of 45 days.The data provided claimed that the hiring of the rig was agreed on Monday, November 18.The rig will begin working for EdIna on February 20, 2020, and complete its contract on April 5, 2020. The Labin will work on an estimated dayrate of $65,000, which means that the estimated size of the contract could be around $2.9 million.According to the latest AIS data provided by VesselsValue, the rig is located off the Croatian city of Pula.As for the rig, Labin was built at the Viktor Lenac shipyard in Croatia in 1985. It is of a Levingstone 111-C cantilever type design with major upgrades done in 2003/04 and 2014/15.It is worth stating that the EdIna joint venture company was created at the beginning of the 2000s. In 2014, the joint venture company started gas production from the Isabella gas field in the northern part of the Adriatic Sea.Ina told Offshore Energy Today via email that the Labin rig was currently undergoing class renewal. Following the class renewal procedure, Labin will start drilling a well on the Isabella field in the second quarter of 2020.Offshore Energy Today Staff