CLICK HERE if you are having a problem viewing the photos on a mobile deviceSAN JOSE — The Sharks have won games before without Joe Thornton. They’ve won games in the past without Logan Couture, and most recently, they’ve won more often than not without Erik Karlsson.But everyone in teal is still adjusting to not having Joe Pavelski available.The injured Sharks captain isn’t likely to play Thursday against the Los Angeles Kings, and he also might Friday’s game against the Anaheim Ducks. That …
Science is an unbiased, objective, disciplined, cooperative method for progressively uncovering truth about the natural world. That’s the way most of us were taught to think about it in school. Further reflection, however, produces a host of questions rarely discussed in science class. How does science differ from other unbiased, objective, disciplined, cooperative methods of inquiry? What is special about scientific logic? To what does science refer? How much impact does our humanness and our relationships have on scientific theories? What is the scientific method? How is science to be distinguished from pseudoscience? Are all branches of science worthy of the same respect? What constitutes a scientific explanation? If our best theories are only tentative, how can we ever know when we have a grasp on reality that is unlikely to be overturned or subsumed under a greater theory? These and many other questions can keep philosophers of science in the Humanities departments busy for years (but with less grant money). Working scientists don’t often pay them much attention. Maybe they should. Nature1 printed a rare excursion into philosophy of science2 that cast severe doubt on the ability of science to ever grasp reality with sufficient confidence to say we have “arrived” at understanding of the cosmos. P.-M Binder, an astronomer at the University of Hawaii in Hilo, explored the reasonings of David Wolpert, known for his work on the “No Free Lunch” theorems.3 He sought to explore the nature and limits of scientific reasoning. Wolpert demonstrated in a recent paper4 that “the entire physical Universe cannot be fully understood by any single inference system that exists within it” (Binder’s words). If that sounds like something Turing or Gödel would say, it is. Wolpert is not the first to demonstrate fundamental limits on human knowledge. Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle is a famous example. Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem is another: it placed fundamental limits on the ability of mathematical theories to validate themselves. Wolpert follows in this tradition with “impossibility results.” He proved with mathematics and logic that in the Universe of sequences of events that follow natural laws, no two strong inference machines can be strongly inferred from each other. His conclusions are independent of any particular natural laws employed in the inference. This means that science can never know everything: just almost everything in the best case. When you “know” one inference well, there will always be at least one other category of inference that will be unclear or ambiguous. Example: the equations of chaos theory can perform pretty well in predicting outcomes of seemingly disorganized systems that have a “strong attractor,” at least up to an acceptable level of accuracy. The catch is: the method cannot validate the equations themselves. What Wolpert has done, in his own words, is demonstrate “impossibility results” in scientific logic that “can be viewed as a non-quantum-mechanical ‘uncertainty principle.’” In short, science cannot validate itself. Science will never produce a theory of everything. Gone are the optimistic 18th-century traditions of Laplace that, given knowledge of each particle’s position and momentum, future outcomes could be predicted with any desired degree of certainty. The Uncertainty Principle, generalized into scientific logic by Wolpert, has shown that the more precise an observer measures one quantity (or inference), the more uncertain becomes the other. Gone also are claims that given a long enough lever and a place to stand, one could move the world. That standing place will always be wobbly.1. P.-M Binder, “Philosophy of science: Theories of almost everything,” Nature 455, 884-885 (16 October 2008) | doi:10.1038/455884a.2. Two articles in The Scientist this month affirm that philosophy of science is neglected in science education these days: one by James Williams on “What Makes Science ‘Science’?” and a follow-up by Richard Gallagher on “Why the Philosophy of Science Matters.” Both articles, unfortunately, appear to espouse a narrow view that resembles logical positivism. This view would be considered indefensible by many philosophers today after the Kuhnian Revolution of the 1960s and the Science Wars of the 1990s. Both also arrogated objectivity to establishment scientists while denigrating creationists and others as ideologues. One respondent caught Summers in name calling. Summers backpedaled somewhat, acknowledging his own dogmatism and the fallibility of science.3. For background on the No Free Lunch theorems, see William Dembski’s book No Free Lunch, Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, esp. section 4.6.4. David H. Wolpert, “Physical limits of inference,” Physica D 237, 1257�1281 (2008), doi:10.1016/j.physd.2008.03.040.“Science is truth,” chants Finagle’s Creed; “Do not be misled by facts!” The limitations of scientific inference explored by Wolpert must hit thinking scientists like a rude awakening. It’s like dreaming of climbing a mountain only to find oneself going up a down escalator. The Truth about the Universe will forever remain beyond the reach of science. Binder ended on a confident note that science might still be converging on a close approximation of reality. Oddly, he ended by showing that two subjects in fundamental physics are beset with shortcomings: the standard model of particle physics, and the so-far intractable problem of uniting quantum mechanics with gravity. But then he said optimistically, in conclusion, “It is possible, though, that these various theories, along with all that we have learned in physics and other scientific disciplines, will yet merge into the best science can do: a theory of almost everything.” Almost is not good enough. There will always be something else you cannot know. Like Ken Ham quips: if you can’t know what you don’t know, you can’t know what you do know; and if you can’t know what you do know, you might know very little. To which we add: how could you ever know whether the most important puzzle piece lies outside your world view, in the inference machine that cannot be inferred from within your system? Maybe, for instance, the most important piece lies in theology.(Visited 49 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
SharePrint RelatedGeocaching a geothermal geocache (GC25643)—Geocache of the WeekNovember 30, 2016In “Community”Cova Tancada – GC1ZW11 – GEOCACHE OF THE WEEK – November 15, 2012November 15, 2012In “Community”Dive in and earn a smiley! – The Blue Hole – Half Moon Caye (GC2KFB8) — Geocache of the WeekMay 28, 2014In “Community” What’s your favorite way to relax after a long day of geocaching? Tell us in the comments.Continue to explore some of the most engaging geocaches around the globe. Check out all the Geocaches of the Week on the Geocaching blog.If you would like to nominate a Geocache of the Week, leave a comment below with the name of the geocache, the GC code, and why you think we should feature it.Share with your Friends:More Party like it’s 1999 in the Blue Lagoon. Photo by geocacher Purple RainGeocache Name:Bláa lónið – Blue lagoon – Blaue Lagune (GC25643)Difficulty/Terrain Rating:1.5/1.5Why this is the Geocache of the Week:After a long day of earning smileys for epic T5 caches, racking your brain on D5 puzzles and battling through each stage of a long multi-cache, you have to have a way to relax. For many, it’s kicking back and enjoying a nice cold beverage. If you happen to be in Iceland, you can actually relax and earn a smiley at the same time—not to mention learn something about the Earth. The Blue Lagoon in Iceland has long been a retreat for locals and tourists alike. The mineral-rich water is heated by geothermal vents and is said to cure a variety of ailments. We can’t comment on its healing properties, but one thing we do know: a dip in here is a perfect way to relax.# of Finds:1,257# of Favorite Points:183What geocachers are saying:“Beautiful spot. It turned out to be a pretty chilly day and so the steam rising off the lagoon was being blown about. Almost ethereal. Thanks for the earth cache. The landscape is fascinating and I suspect Iceland could provide a lot of earth caches.” – taylormd“We spend about two hours in the water; delicious! Due to the mud, our faces looked 10 years younger afterwards. Unfortunately, it only lasted for a few minutes. Thanks for the earth cache!” – peterenzo“I have had a wonderful Icelandic Adventure and this was the topping on a great vacation. The Blue Lagoon was wonderfully relaxibg and very beautiful. I really enjoyed the silica scrub and everything about this place. Thanks for the earthcache!” – TracymeganRead More LogsPhotos:You could earn another find from here. Photo by geocacher Ugly_PheebsIt’s like a big baby blue hot tub. Photo by geocacher patch-sootyAhhh…it looks so relaxing from here. Photo by the appropriately named geocacher ilovevacation See More Photos
Here are five pieces of advice for managing gear — and yourself — when traveling internationally for a shoot.Traveling internationally is stressful enough. Passports, visas, even the proper toiletries in the proper toiletry-sized bag can all be causes of stress when you’re in that mile-long security checkpoint line. Foreign languages, jet lag, customs, getting directions in a new city with a different culture — it can make your head spin.Add prepping for your international production to that, and it’s easy to get overwhelmed. After my year on the road, I’ve picked up a few tips and tricks for any international shoot. Hopefully, these make the trip a little smoother — turbulence aside.1.Travel LightImage via Shutterstock.This seems obvious, but it’s easy to overpack. With skyrocketing baggage fees, most of us cannot afford to not travel light. This means you must only bring your absolute essentials. And if you can afford it or plan to travel a lot, invest in lightweight or easily compacted gear.To see my recommendations, check out “The Lightweight International Packing List,” also featured at PremiumBeat.2. Carry OnImage via Lowepro.Never, ever “check” your essentials. Yes, I realize I just told you we are only packing the “essentials,” but strip that down even further to the bare minimum of what you absolutely cannot live without if something were to go awry with your checked baggage. And yes, that will eventually happen if you travel a lot — especially when flying on smaller foreign airlines or with multiple layovers.This means utilizing that carry-on bag to the max. Carry on your camera, batteries, media, hard drives, audio, lenses, and (ideally) a small handheld rig broken down to fit. That might seem like a lot to cram into an overhead-friendly roller bag, but trust me — with enough time and practice, it is possible.That way, if worst comes to worst, you know you can get scrappy and make your shoot work until the remainder of your gear arrives. If you’re flying halfway across the world for only a short amount of time, you absolutely cannot afford to lose even a day of shooting because a bag did not arrive.3. The Buddy System Image via Shutterstock.Another way to conquer the “no-check” rule is to use every member of your crew. On the three-to-five-person documentary teams I frequently travel with, we usually break up the “one carry-on per person” count into a couple of Lowepros and a tripod bag. Since we travel together often, it’s easy for us to utilize space in the roller bags by separating and mixing gear packages to maximize space.As for the tripod bag, you can fit a small video tripod, backpack slider, two monopods, and your boom pole into this one bag (trust me — I’ve done it!). It’s a bit of a Tetris game, but the trick is to remove the head on the tripod and slider and check them in your larger bag. If for some reason your checked bag doesn’t arrive with the tripod head, you still have two monopods to cover your first few days of shooting.4. SpreadsheetsTo keep track of which gear is in which bag, I recommend creating a spreadsheet. After twenty+ hours in the air, your jetlagged brain will thank you for any preproduction that spares you extra stress while building out a camera on zero hours of sleep in a completely different timezone.My packing routine is to start with a complete inventory of all my usual gear. I make a copy of this base list, then make any changes specific to this current trip’s needs. I then organize the list by bag so I can reference that quickly when looking for something in country.Build out your package completely before you pack it to make sure you’re not forgetting anything. Then, of course, double check that all the gear is in fact packed and ready to go. It seems tedious, but it is crucial to make sure you are not forgetting any little piece. Trying to track down a 1/4-20 screw in rural Angola is, quite frankly, completely impossible.The same goes for repacking when you’re returning home. You’ll be tired, so relying on a system to repack reduces the likelihood of forgetting something. 5. Keep It Casual and Incognito This is not always necessary, depending on where you are headed, but sometimes shooting remote can also mean shooting in places where media teams are less welcome. If that is the case for you, I have a few recommendations.Pack your gear in bags that don’t look like camera bags. I recommend something like the Lowepro as your roller board in disguise, and we use a large, black Temba case for our checked luggage. It is just as protective as a pelican case, but it doesn’t draw the same amount of attention.I also recommend this approach while on the ground shooting. Do your best to look like a local. Obviously, if you’re a skinny white girl traveling through Africa, this will be more difficult. But dress both practically and respectably. Don’t assume just because you are in remote or developing countries that you won’t want to seem presentable. If you’re dressed like Indiana Jones in your safari hat and pants, you’ll definitely stand out even more than you already do. And shooting documentaries demands we disappear behind our subjects as much as possible. You’re also less likely to get targeted for theft or unwanted attention if you follow these rules.Often, you can fly under the radar if you claim to just be a tourist with a super-expensive filmmaking hobby. But if you aren’t comfortable doing so, double check that you have all the appropriate visas for working in country, even if just for a temporary shoot.Do you have advice for shooting internationally? Let us know in the comments.
Combine Barry Sanders, the Big 12 and CFP National Championship trophy, kids inflatables and what do you get? OSU’s festivity lineup slated for Saturday, of course.As part of OSU’s SEAson of Orange campaign, Sanders, OSU’s lone Heisman winner, will be on hand from noon to 2 p.m. to sign autographs as part of a block party on Hall of Fame immediately north of the stadium.Also as part of the festivities ahead of the top-16 tilt between Oklahoma State and TCU, the CFP National Championship trophy will be on display from noon to 1:30 p.m., as well as the Big 12 Championship trophy.If you’re hauling rugrats with you to the game, kids inflatables for the block party will be set up on the turf field outside the Sherman Smith Training Center.Oh, and don’t forget: No. 6 OSU faces No. 16 TCU at 2:30 p.m..If you’re looking for the comments section, it has moved to our forum, The Chamber. You can go there to comment and holler about these articles, specifically in these threads. You can register for a free account right here and will need one to comment.If you’re wondering why we decided to do this, we wrote about that here. Thank you and cheers!