Science Cannot Validate Itself

first_imgScience is an unbiased, objective, disciplined, cooperative method for progressively uncovering truth about the natural world.  That’s the way most of us were taught to think about it in school.  Further reflection, however, produces a host of questions rarely discussed in science class.  How does science differ from other unbiased, objective, disciplined, cooperative methods of inquiry?  What is special about scientific logic?  To what does science refer?  How much impact does our humanness and our relationships have on scientific theories?  What is the scientific method?  How is science to be distinguished from pseudoscience? Are all branches of science worthy of the same respect?  What constitutes a scientific explanation?  If our best theories are only tentative, how can we ever know when we have a grasp on reality that is unlikely to be overturned or subsumed under a greater theory?  These and many other questions can keep philosophers of science in the Humanities departments busy for years (but with less grant money).  Working scientists don’t often pay them much attention.  Maybe they should.    Nature1 printed a rare excursion into philosophy of science2 that cast severe doubt on the ability of science to ever grasp reality with sufficient confidence to say we have “arrived” at understanding of the cosmos.  P.-M Binder, an astronomer at the University of Hawaii in Hilo, explored the reasonings of David Wolpert, known for his work on the “No Free Lunch” theorems.3   He sought to explore the nature and limits of scientific reasoning.  Wolpert demonstrated in a recent paper4 that “the entire physical Universe cannot be fully understood by any single inference system that exists within it” (Binder’s words).  If that sounds like something Turing or Gödel would say, it is.    Wolpert is not the first to demonstrate fundamental limits on human knowledge.  Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle is a famous example.  Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem is another: it placed fundamental limits on the ability of mathematical theories to validate themselves.  Wolpert follows in this tradition with “impossibility results.”  He proved with mathematics and logic that in the Universe of sequences of events that follow natural laws, no two strong inference machines can be strongly inferred from each other.  His conclusions are independent of any particular natural laws employed in the inference.    This means that science can never know everything: just almost everything in the best case.  When you “know” one inference well, there will always be at least one other category of inference that will be unclear or ambiguous.  Example: the equations of chaos theory can perform pretty well in predicting outcomes of seemingly disorganized systems that have a “strong attractor,” at least up to an acceptable level of accuracy.  The catch is: the method cannot validate the equations themselves.  What Wolpert has done, in his own words, is demonstrate “impossibility results” in scientific logic that “can be viewed as a non-quantum-mechanical ‘uncertainty principle.’”    In short, science cannot validate itself.  Science will never produce a theory of everything.  Gone are the optimistic 18th-century traditions of Laplace that, given knowledge of each particle’s position and momentum, future outcomes could be predicted with any desired degree of certainty.  The Uncertainty Principle, generalized into scientific logic by Wolpert, has shown that the more precise an observer measures one quantity (or inference), the more uncertain becomes the other.  Gone also are claims that given a long enough lever and a place to stand, one could move the world.  That standing place will always be wobbly.1.  P.-M Binder, “Philosophy of science: Theories of almost everything,” Nature 455, 884-885 (16 October 2008) | doi:10.1038/455884a.2.  Two articles in The Scientist this month affirm that philosophy of science is neglected in science education these days: one by James Williams on “What Makes Science ‘Science’?” and a follow-up by Richard Gallagher on “Why the Philosophy of Science Matters.”  Both articles, unfortunately, appear to espouse a narrow view that resembles logical positivism.  This view would be considered indefensible by many philosophers today after the Kuhnian Revolution of the 1960s and the Science Wars of the 1990s.  Both also arrogated objectivity to establishment scientists while denigrating creationists and others as ideologues.  One respondent caught Summers in name calling.  Summers backpedaled somewhat, acknowledging his own dogmatism and the fallibility of science.3.  For background on the No Free Lunch theorems, see William Dembski’s book No Free Lunch, Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, esp. section 4.6.4.  David H. Wolpert, “Physical limits of inference,” Physica D 237, 1257�1281 (2008), doi:10.1016/j.physd.2008.03.040.“Science is truth,” chants Finagle’s Creed; “Do not be misled by facts!”  The limitations of scientific inference explored by Wolpert must hit thinking scientists like a rude awakening.  It’s like dreaming of climbing a mountain only to find oneself going up a down escalator.  The Truth about the Universe will forever remain beyond the reach of science.    Binder ended on a confident note that science might still be converging on a close approximation of reality.  Oddly, he ended by showing that two subjects in fundamental physics are beset with shortcomings: the standard model of particle physics, and the so-far intractable problem of uniting quantum mechanics with gravity.  But then he said optimistically, in conclusion, “It is possible, though, that these various theories, along with all that we have learned in physics and other scientific disciplines, will yet merge into the best science can do: a theory of almost everything.”    Almost is not good enough.  There will always be something else you cannot know.  Like Ken Ham quips: if you can’t know what you don’t know, you can’t know what you do know; and if you can’t know what you do know, you might know very little.  To which we add: how could you ever know whether the most important puzzle piece lies outside your world view, in the inference machine that cannot be inferred from within your system?  Maybe, for instance, the most important piece lies in theology.(Visited 49 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

iOS 12 hands on: Apple fixes ghost of iOS 11 past

first_imgiOS 11 was perhaps one of Apple’s most buggiest updates ever. So much so that it pushed me to switch from an iPhone to an Android phone. From battery drain issues to autocorrect bugs to a Telugu character crashing the iPhone, iOS users saw it all this past year. To add fuel to the fire, Apple late last year admitted to throttling iPhone performance to prevent older iPhones from shutting down randomly. But with iOS 12, Apple is looking to fix a lot of its mistakes.Update: Apple released iOS 12 for the masses on September 17. For non-beta users, the update will be available OTA or via iTunes. If you have been using the public beta versions, you can downgrade easily by heading to Settings > General > Profiles. Click on the iOS 12 Beta Software Profile and then tap on Remove Profile. Once this is done, reboot the device and you should be downgraded to iOS 11 after which you’ll receive the official iOS 12 update via OTA.At WWDC 2018, Apple announced a few new features and improvements to iOS 12. And while they may not sound ground-breaking, a lot of what makes iOS 12 a worthy upgrade is with regards to performance, speed and reliability. And that’s exactly what the update brings based on my hands on experience with iOS 12 public beta, which is currently available for anyone to download. After spending some time with iOS 12, I can confidently say that this is one of the most stable updates from the company in a long while.advertisementiOS 12 is compatible with any device that is compatible with iOS 11. This means the iPhone X all the way back to the 2013 iPhone 5s will support iOS 12 and users of any of these models are eligible to download the public beta. Similarly, the update will be compatible with the current 12.9-inch iPad Pro 2nd generation all the way back to the iPad Mini 2. To download the public beta version, you must first enroll yourself with the Apple Beta Program using your Apple ID. Now, it’s always urged to download a pre-released beta update on a secondary device as such updates are expected to bring some bugs and issues.iOS 12 is a return to form When Apple announced iOS 12 at WWDC 2018, it opened by saying that iOS 11 saw a 95 per cent customer satisfaction, which sounded pretty strange considering all the issues the update brought with it. The issues got so out of hand that reports earlier in the year suggested that Apple will be taking the year to focus on performance and reliability and that iOS 12 will not be too showy, but will focus on bringing a kind of normalcy back to the mobile software. And this is exactly what Apple announced at its developers conference when it said it was “doubling down on performance” with iOS 12.Before talking about the new features, I feel it’s important to inform everyone that iOS 12 is an impressive update simply from a performance standpoint. I installed the beta update on the iPhone X, iPhone 7 and iPad Air 2 and found all three devices to run smoothly without a lot of glitches. While the iPhone X is still pretty new and performs smoothly as ever, I noticed a marked improvement in performance on older devices like the iPhone 7. Apple claimed that apps open twice as fast as before and camera opens from the locked screen around 70 per cent faster. While I can’t verify the speed to the dot, I can say that Apple’s claims are true for the most part.iOS 12 is definitely an update meant to make older iPhones great again. And it comes at a time when Apple planted a seed of distrust following its admonition that it intentionally slowed down older iPhones to protect aging batteries from causing random shutdowns. iOS 12 on the iPhone 7 noticeably improved performance with faster app load times, fewer lags and generally a smoother experience. Everything just feels faster and smoother. I also noticed some improvements to battery life, which is always great to hear when it comes to iOS updates.iOS 12 is definitely an update meant to make older iPhones great againFor those wondering about how iOS 12 works on even older iPhones, CNET recently performed a comparison between two iPhone 5s models – one with iOS 12 installed and one running iOS 11.4. The tests revealed that apps like Safari, Mail and sliding to open Camera all launched noticeably faster on iOS 12.iPad becomes more like the iPhone X iOS 12 isn’t as much about visual changes as it is about performance, stability and making life just a little bit easier. With iOS 12 on the iPad, not only do you get everything that we just mentioned, but Apple is also hinting at something very specific. Right after installing the update on my iPad Air 2, I couldn’t help but notice how certain changes to the UI seems inspired by the iPhone X. Swiping down from the top right corner brings the Control Center, similar to how it works on the iPhone X.advertisementSimilarly, the iPad gets some more navigation gestures inspired by the iPhone X. Swiping up from the bottom of the display will flick away an open app and take you to the home screen, while swiping up and around from the bottom right or left corner switches the app. To get the Dock for multitasking, you will need to swipe and hold for a bit. You will need to swipe up near the middle of the display to bring up the App Switcher.With iOS 12, Apple is preparing us for the inevitable removal of the Home Button on future iPadsI can’t help but feel Apple is preparing us for the eventual removal of the Home Button-cum-Touch ID with its next set of iPads. During my time with the iPad, I rarely felt the need to use the Home Button what with all the new navigations now added. Apple analyst Ming-Chi Kuo has predicted that 2018 iPads will be equipped with Face ID and will likely sport slimmer bezels. There’s also the possibility of these iPads sporting an iPhone X-like notch, and the latest iOS 12 is laying the groundwork for that.Measure app on iOS 12 Apple over the past couple of years has been pushing a lot for augmented reality. The company announced ARKit last year to allow third-party developers build AR apps by taking advantage of an iOS device’s camera, CPU, GPU and motion sensor. Since then a lot of measurement apps have cropped up, but Apple at WWDC 2018 decided to bring its own measuring app, simply called Measure.Measure is an app that is based on ARKit that allows you to measure real-world objects and environments. Opening the app launches the viewfinder and provides two tools for measurement – a measure scale and a level scale. The first one lets you measure objects in terms of centimeters and inches while the latter tells you whether an object is on a straight level.The camera will recognise corners and vibrate the iPhone so that you start measuring from that point. Tapping on the screen or the Plus icon will start the measuring and you can drag it to a another point to measure the length or height of something.My experience with the Measure app has been a little uneven. When it works, it works pretty well although I won’t say it’s extremely accurate at measuring. However, while testing it, the iPhone started heating within a minute. That being said, I didn’t encounter frequent app crashes and I found it to be a lot more intuitive than the Measure app Google designed for ARCore. The heating issue is a genuine concern and Apple will need to iron that out before the stable iOS 12 update rolls out.advertisementGrouped notifications One of the features as part of the “how to keep things clean 101” is Grouped Notifications. Much like Stacks in macOS Mojave, Grouped Notifications essentially brings together notifications of a similar kind and stacks them on on top of the other. So when you turn on the iPhone or the iPad, you’ll see your Messenger notifications stacked together and tapping them will drop the messengers down. Apple sees this as a more convenient way from having to scroll through endless notifications, but I’m not too sure how I feel about this feature.I like having all my notifications right there at a glance as it helps me quickly reply. But I do appreciate the idea of having notifications grouped together, especially if someone constantly receives notifications from Facebook, Twitter, mails and messages throughout the day. It makes sorting through messages a whole lot easier and it’s easy on you eyes too. The feature on iOS 12 beta didn’t always group notifications and it’s probably a minor bug that should be fixed with the stable update. Additionally, you also get the option to have your notifications delivered quietly to you in the notification center without popping up on your lock screen or making any sound when delivered.Screen Time Google and Apple are both of the opinion that we spend too much time on our phones. Both Google’s Digital Wellbeing and Apple’s Screen Time look to provide you with information on how much time you’re spending on your favourite apps, so that you have an idea on whether you’re overdoing it. Screen Time on iOS shows you how much time you have spent on certain apps.Within Screen Time, you have options like Downtime, which lets you schedule the amount of time you want to spend away from the phone. Once you enter the schedule time frame, you’ll receive a pop up telling you that you’ve reached your limit on an app, say Facebook or Twitter. You can then either close the app or choose to ignore the limit and continue browsing the app. That’s the biggest difference between Screen Time and Google’s Digital Wellbeing. Google is pretty strict with its limits as it won’t let you continue using the app unless you go to the dashboard app and manually remove the limit, whereas Apple is giving the user the choice to decide whether they want to quit the app or continue browsing.Apple’s way is not as rigid compared to Google and I’m okay with thatApple’s way is not as rigid compared to Google and I’m okay with that. Screen Time is a pretty neat feature and gave me a good summary at the end of the week of how much time I spent on apps and how many times I picked up the iPhone. The latter was quite an eye-opener as well.Memoji Apart from a stunning edge-to-edge design, the iPhone X is also unique because it’s the only iPhone that supports Animoji, which are essentially smileys that reflect your facial movements thanks to the sensors inside the notch on the X. With iOS 12, Apple added another fun new exclusive feature called Memoji, which is basically a 3D avatar of yourself. The sad part is that we can still only access Memoji and Animoji through iMessage. With Memoji, you can create your own avatar by choosing the skin colour, hair, facial features like beard and size of nose and accessories like a cap.Once created, you can use your Memoji as you would an Animoji and send it to another iPhone X user. Since you have to create your own avatar from scratch, it’s unlikely your Memoji will look anything like you. After a while, the novelty of it fades away and I found myself going back to the good old Animojis. The most notable new feature here is the ability to use Animoji and Memoji while on a FaceTime video call. That was pretty fun to use and i’m sure that’s going to be a popular feature going forward. Speaking of FaceTime, iOS 12 now allows up to 32 people to join in on a FaceTime call or video. We tried testing this out in beta but it mostly started crashing when adding a third person to the chat.There are tons of other features on iOS 12 that would really stretch this article beyond its limits, which is why I chose to highlight the most notable of them. I have been quite impressed with the stability and performance that iOS 12 brings to the iPhone, especially on older models and I would definitely recommend installing this on a secondary device to check out all the new features. Apple should release the stable build sometime around September as it has done in the past.last_img read more

NOW HIRING 10 New Job Openings In Wilmington

first_imgWILMINGTON, MA — Below are some of the newest job openings in Wilmington:Full-Time Long-Term Substitute Speech Language Pathologist at Wildwood Early Childhood CenterFull-Time Buyer at Pacific Packaging Products, Inc.Full-Time Customer Service Rep at Parts4HeatingFull-Time Quality Technician at Analog DevicesFull-Time Receptionist at Stuffed FoodsFull-Time Digital Marketing Content Specialist at AmetrosFull-Time Commercial Insurance Assistant Account Manager at HUB InternationalFull-Time Warehouse Parts Administrator at Service Quick, Inc.Full-Time Teacher at May Institute Full-Time Dispatcher at Super Service Today(NOTE: Wilmington businesses — Feel free to send me your job postings at Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… RelatedNOW HIRING: 10 New Job Openings In WilmingtonIn “Business”NOW HIRING: 10 New Job Openings In WilmingtonIn “Business”NOW HIRING: 10 New Job Openings In WilmingtonIn “Business”last_img read more

Forget the Super Bowl Monsters Inc fans are celebrating 2319 day

first_img Happy 2319 #2319Day— ıllıмυѕнιıllı (@fakedymond) February 3, 2019 Comments “2319! WE HAVE A 2319!” Happy #2319Day— Jonathan (@Jonatha08077969) February 3, 2019 And here’s a human reenactment of the scene. Tags Now playing: Watch this: Toy Story Land is incredibly detailed Monsters Inc. fans are thrilled that Feb. 3, 2019 correlates into 2319 day. Walt Disney Pictures Monsters Inc. fans have more than just the Super Bowl to enjoy on Sunday.Since it’s Feb. 3, 2019, fans of the Pixar film were quick to that the date correlates to the code 2319, a number that leads to a sequence in a hilarious scene from the 2001 film.As pointed out by CNET sister site, the scene in question involves the monster George (Sam Black), who gets an unexpected haircut as a result of getting a child’s sock stuck on his gloriously orange fur. At this point in the film, monsters think children are toxic, making the sock a big issue code-named 2319.  3:02 HAPPY #2319Day #redalert #MonstersInc— Bring your own Geek (@Bringyourowngek) February 3, 2019 39 Photos I think i’m funny #2319Day #SuperBowl— Chloseph (@ChlosterSays) February 3, 2019 3 Happy 2319 Day!!@WaltDisneyWorld @Disney @DisneyPixar @WaltDisneyCo @MonstersU #2319Day— Brad Fowler 🇺🇸 (@BradFowler11) February 3, 2019 Hidden details of Toy Story Land TV and Movies And a costumed one, too. Share your voice One even thinks 2319 could be a Super Bowl strategy (don’t do this). Have you posted your own 2319 salute on social media? Drop us a link in the comments and we may add it to this roundup. Happy 2319 day, and watch out for those socks! Just going to leave this here 😂 #Disney #2319Day— Yoshi P73🍔🍟 (@Mexicanpancake7) February 3, 2019 Fans who remember the scene have taken to Twitter to celebrate the date, with all sorts of orange-ful posts in memory of George’s hair. Disney Pixarlast_img read more