Share your voice What it feels like to kill 563 mice for science Scientists connect a human brain and ‘rat cyborg’ brain together Rodent experiments The See-Shell could aid scientists studying human brain conditions like concussions, Alzheimer’s and degenerative conditions like Parkinson’s disease. “These are studies we couldn’t do in humans, but they are extremely important in our understanding of how the brain works so we can improve treatments for people who experience brain injuries or diseases,” says neuroscientist Timothy Ebner. Post a comment Researchers at the University of Minnesota have figured out how to open a window into the brains of mice by using a transparent skull implant. It’s called the See-Shell. “What we are trying to do is to see if we can visualize and interact with large parts of the mouse brain surface, called the cortex, over long periods of time,” says mechanical engineering professor Suhasa Kodandaramaiah, co-author of a study on the See-Shell that appeared in the journal Nature Communications on Tuesday. A spider’s erection, and other cool things trapped in amber A video released by the university shows a sped-up mouse brain scan as seen through the See-Shell. “Changes in brightness correspond to waxing and waning of neural activity. Subtle flashes are periods when the whole brain suddenly becomes active,” the school notes.The researchers digitally scan a mouse’s skull and use the data to create a matching transparent piece using a 3D printer. The skull is then surgically replaced with the See-Shell. The mouse studied by the team did not reject the implant, which allowed them to monitor its brain over several months. The researchers intend to make the See-Shell commercially available to other researchers. 20 Photos Sci-Tech Tags 0
Share your voice Now playing: Watch this: 11 WhatsApp features you might not know Mobile Tech Industry Mobile Apps Internet Services Post a comment 0 2:40 Tags WhatsApp Business is coming to iOS devices. Carsten Rehder/Getty Images WhatsApp Business is now available in Apple’s App Store. The Facebook-owned messaging app is expanding with the WhatsApp Business app for iOS users, according to a Thursday blog post. The business version of WhatsApp rolled out to Android devices in January 2018. The app has a suite of features designed to make it easier for small businesses to communicate with customers, including a quick reply feature, desktop support, and the ability to get verified business profiles and set up frequently asked questions. WhatsApp Business is available Thursday in the US, Brazil, Germany, Indonesia, India, Mexico and the UK. The app will roll out worldwide over the next few weeks. iOS 12 WhatsApp
Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Start-up India event, to be held on 16 January, will be attended by some big names in the start-up space, such as Japanese SoftBank’s founder Masayoshi Son, taxi-hailing firm Uber’s founder Travis Kalanick and collaborative workspace provider WeWork’s founder Adam Neumann.At the event, Modi will announce an action plan to support early-stage companies in the country.Search giant Google Inc will carry out a session titled “Launchpad Accelerator”, where early-stage start-ups can win $50,000 in non-equity investment by making “live pitches” to investors.Participants can interact with SoftBank president and chief operating officer Nikesh Arora on various issues related to fund-raising. Secretaries of major government departments will also answer queries on how the government will “create an enabling ecosystem for start-ups”.Taking into account the significance of the event in promoting start-up culture in the country, it will be telecast live in all Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs), Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) and central universities, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) secretary Amitabh Kant told reporters.The live telecast will also be available for youth groups in over 350 districts of the country, according to Kant.Nearly 40 innovators, venture capitalists and angel investors from Silicon Valley, along with 1,500 founders of start-ups, will attend the event.Currently, India is home to 18,000 start-ups employing 3 lakh people, according to former director of Infosys TV Mohandas Pai. Pai expects the number of start-ups to increase to 1 lakh, creating 35 lakh jobs in the next 10 years.Modi, on his “Mann Ki Baat” radio programme’s telecast on 27 December last year, had announced the government would launch the action plan for “Start-up India, Stand-up India” on 16 January, 2016.”The action plan shall highlight initiatives and schemes being undertaken by the government to address various aspects relating to developing a conducive start-up ecosystem in the country,” Kant added.The formulation of the action plan is in its final stage, a government official who was a part of the drafting of the policy told Mint.”We have sent the policy to the Prime Minister’s Office. It is likely to be finalised by 10 January,” he said, requesting anonymity.The event will also witness workshops and panel discussions on topics including “Unleashing entrepreneurship and innovation: What do Indian start-ups need to grow and prosper”, “Celebrating women: Stories of innovative women entrepreneurs”, “How digitisation will change India’s future”, “Making Indian healthcare leapfrog”, “Financial inclusion is within reach” and “Show me the money: How do we capitalize entrepreneurship?””The objective is to reinforce commitment of the government towards creating an ecosystem that is conducive for growth of start-ups,” a DIPP statement said.
To embed this piece of audio in your site, please use this code: X Listen 00:00 /01:57 Share – / 3Just hours before Thursday night’s grand opening, it was hard to imagine the White Oak Music Hall’s building would be ready to go in time. By 11 AM, dozens of workers were still installing stage lights, power washing the sidewalk, and briskly wheeling cases of beer into the pristine white building on N. Main St. If you head there this weekend and notice a faint, sweet cedar smell, it’s not your imagination. “What we’ve done here is wrapped every single wall in cedar planks,” explains the venue’s co-operator Johnny So. “Not only does that provide a nice, warm visual aesthetic, it also provides a lot of acoustic benefits.”The large space in front of the main stage can fit as many as 1,000 people. There’s also a smaller, more intimate space upstairs with a lounge-like vibe, ideal for jazz or acoustic shows.But there are mixed feelings about the new venue. When the hall opened its outdoor space in April, nearby residents complained about the noise. “We have three children who are disturbed by the bass and decibel level each time they have a show,” says Beth Lousteau, who lives about five blocks from the venue. She’s filed formal complaints with the city.Residents also say the overflow of traffic congests the area’s narrow streets. The hall’s Johnny So says they offer about 620 parking lot spaces. If the outdoor lawn can hold 3,500 people, however, and another 1,200 guests can fit inside, finding a spot could be tough on nights when three concerts are being held at once. There are hopes that more concert goers will use Uber or opt to take the Metro light rail, which has a station about 1/4 mile away. The venue’s co-owner Jagi Katial says they’re working with the community and listening to concerns, adding that they’ve increased the police presence in the neighborhood during concerts and send crews out to clean the streets afterwards. “It’s our responsibility to be the best neighbors we can in that setup,” he says. “That’s our obligation.”The four-day grand opening of the White Oak Music Hall’s interior space runs through Sunday.
Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B (Phys.org) —A team made up of researchers from the U.S. and Australia has put together what they describe as a complete outline of the taphonomic (post-mortem) degradation processes for mammalian hair. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, the group outlines the current state of post-mortem analysis of mammalian hair, including human and also offers some opinions on possible misinterpretations at both crime and archeology sites. Fungal invasion of hairs. (a) Woolly Mammoth (Jarkov) hair engulfed by hyphae, (b,c) partial removal of cuticle (arrow) and dissolution of cuticle (bracketed) on Q8 woolly mammoth (Jarkov) hair, (d) SEM image of a penetrating organ (arrow) embedded in a woolly rhino hair. (e) SEM image of a lateral fungal hypha with an eroding frond (arrow), ( f ) mycelial mass (arrow) on shaft of woolly mammoth (M10) hair. Scale bars: a ¼ 200 mm, b,c ¼ 100 mm, d ¼ 50 mm, e ¼ 5 mm, f ¼ 20 mm. Credit: Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Published 22 October 2014 doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.1755 Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2014 Phys.org Citation: Researchers offer taphonomic degradation processes for mammalian hair (2014, October 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-10-taphonomic-degradation-mammalian-hair.html Caught by a hair The authors note that while the taphonomic degradation process for teeth and bones has been well documented, the same cannot be said for mammalian hair. Their paper serves to fill that void.The research team notes that on its own, mammalian hair doesn’t degrade much, allowing samples to survive for thousands of years. But most hair is not left to its own devices, it comes in contact with soil (quite often due to burial) that harbors fungi that do break down hair—they’ve provided photos of individual hairs with holes along their length to demonstrate what happens. That fungi breaks down hair is not new information—archeologists and law enforcement have both known about it for quite some time and have used the process to further their goal of trying to understand what happened at a particular site. But, the researchers contend, not all information gleaned from such sites is interpreted correctly. They note for example that if crime scene investigators find a hair that has experienced degradation due to fungi, it doesn’t necessarily mean that the victim died, was buried (putting them in contact with soil fungi) and then dug up again, as has been assumed in many such cases. Instead they note, soil fungi can degrade hair on living mammals, including people—if a child plays in the dirt for example. They suggest the only true evidence of death of a victim using a hair sample is what is known as post-mortem banding, where bacteria leave a dark band at the root of the hair when someone dies.The team also notes that examination of hair at crime scenes, particularly from victims that have been buried or left on the ground can offer less obvious clues, such as how long the hair has been exposed to the fungi or whether it existed in a warm humid climate, versus one that was cool or dry.The researchers also note that many examples of mammalian samples from archeological sites that suggest the original owner had red hair, such as those for many woolly mammoths, are inaccurate. Tests have shown that most such instances are due to contamination of the hair after death, from bacterial biofilms or other processes—woolly mammoth hair had no pigment, after all. More information: Interpreting biological degradative processes acting on mammalian hair in the living and the dead: which ones are taphonomic? Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Published 22 October 2014 DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.1755AbstractAlthough the taphonomic (post-mortem) degradation processes relevant to teeth and bones have been well described, those taking place with regards to mammalian hairs have not been characterized to the same extent. This present article describes, in detail, microscopic changes resulting from the actions of biological agents that digest and degrade hairs. The most noteworthy and prevalent agents responsible for the destruction of hair structure are fungi, which use a range of strategies to invade and digest hairs. One of the most important finds to emerge from this study is that taphonomic structures and processes can easily be interpreted by the unwary as ‘real’, or as class characteristics for a particular animal taxon. Moreover, under certain conditions, ‘taphonomic’ processes normally associated with the dead are also present on the hairs of the living. This work will improve the reliability of hair examinations in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological applications—in addition, the finding has relevance in the protection of mammalian collections susceptible to infestation. This article also addresses the popular myth that ancient peoples were often red-haired and discusses phenomena responsible for this observation. Insights gained from detailed characterization of taphonomic processes in 95 hairs from a variety of species demonstrate the range and breadth of degradative effects on hair structure and colour. Lastly, the study demonstrates that hairs often tell a story and that there is value of extracting as much morphological data as possible from hairs, prior to destructive sampling for biomolecules.